Motivation of pedagogical activity General characteristics of pedagogical motivation

Motivation of pedagogical activity General characteristics of pedagogical motivation :One of the most important components of pedagogical activity is its motivation. In pedagogical activity, the same motivational orientations are distinguished as in the educational one (see part IV, chap. 2). These are external motives, for example, the motive of achievement, and internal motives, for example, orientation on the process and the result of their activities.

Motivation of pedagogical activity General characteristics of pedagogical motivation


 External motives for the prestige of working in a particular educational institution, motives for the adequacy of remuneration are often correlated with the motives of personal and professional growth, self-actualization. At the same time, in pedagogical activity as a specific form of interaction between an adult and a child, such an orientation as domination, or the motive of power, appears.

 One of the researchers of pedagogical abilities, N.A. Aminov , believes that in order to show how the motive of power relates to pedagogical activity, it is necessary to first dwell on the point of view of G.A. Murray, who as early as 1938 defined the motive of power, calling it the need for dominance [see also 154, p. 60-69]. G.A. Murray identified the main signs of the need for dominance and its corresponding actions.

 Signs or effects of the need for dominance are the following desires:

  •  control your social environment;
  •  influence the behavior of other people and direct it through advice, seduction, persuasion or commandment;
  •  encourage others to act in accordance with their needs and feelings;
  •  seek their cooperation;
  •  convince others of their innocence.


ON. Aminov also notes compliance with these desires of certain actions, which, according to G.A. Murray, grouped as follows:


  •  persuade, lead, persuade, persuade, regulate, organize, lead, manage, oversee;
  •  subjugate, rule, rule, trample, dictate conditions, judge, establish laws, introduce standards, draw up rules of conduct, make decisions;
  •  prohibit, limit, resist, dissuade, punish, imprison;
  •  charm, conquer, force to listen to yourself, acquire imitators, establish fashion.


Based on the analysis of theories of explaining the phenomenon of power (A. Adler, D. Cartwright, J. French, V. Raven, D. McClelland and others) N.A. Aminov argues the importance of A. Adler's thesis about the special role of the pursuit of excellence, excellence and social power in the complex of leading motives of personal development.

Undoubted interest, according to N.A. Aminova, for the analysis of power resources in the educational process, is the classification of its sources proposed by J. French and V. Raven. Moreover, it is significant that some of the types of power motive (reward, punishment) are the manifestation, as has already been shown, of the two sides of the achievement motivation, according to K. Hekhausen. ON. Aminov (1990) gives for illustration the following types of motive of power, correlated with the pedagogical actions of a teacher.

1. The power of remuneration. Its strength is determined by the expectation of the extent to which A (the teacher) can satisfy one of the motives of B (the student) and how much A puts this satisfaction in favor of | dependence on B.'s desired behavior.

2. The power of punishment. Its strength is determined by the expectation of B (the student), firstly, of the measure in which A (the teacher) is able to punish him for actions that are undesirable for A by frustration of a motive, and secondly, how much A will make dissatisfaction of the motive dependent on the undesirable B.'s behavior

3. Regulatory power. We are talking about the internalized B (student) norms, according to which A (teacher) has the right to monitor compliance with certain rules of behavior and, if necessary, insist on them.

4. The power of the standard. It is based on the identification of B (student) and the desire of B to be like A.

5. The power of the connoisseur. Its strength depends on the value attributed to A (teacher) on the part of B (student) of special knowledge in the subject being studied, intuition or learning skills within the subject.

6. Information power. It takes place in cases where A (the teacher) has information that can make B (the student) see the consequences of his behavior at school or at home in a new light.

Of interest is the age-related stadia of motivation by the authorities, according to McClelland. Analyzing this approach to the motive of power, N.A. Aminov noted that McClelland not only identified four stages in the development of motivation by the government (assimilation, autonomy, self-affirmation and productivity), but also interpreted each of them in the context of age development. 

So, the basis of the first stage (“Something gives me strength”) is the relationship of mother and child. From the position of orientation to power in the following years of life, it means relations with people who can support, protect, inspire, inspire, i.e. increase the individual’s sense of own power. 

The second stage (“I give myself strength”) corresponds to the middle period of childhood, associated with gaining independence from the mother and increasing control over my behavior. The third stage (“I impress others”) characterizes a teenager for whom authorities no longer exist, who constantly changes friends, whose participation in the competition is determined by the ability to prevail over other people. And the fourth stage (“I want to fulfill my duty”) corresponds to the adult state, i.e. a mature person who devotes his life to serving a business or a specific social group.

Naturally, for the analysis of the motivation of pedagogical activity, the last stage in the development of the power motive is of greatest interest. ON. Aminov specifically emphasizes that in the motivational basis for the choice of pedagogical activity, the motive of power is always oriented towards the benefit of others (help through knowledge). This is important for predicting the success of pedagogical activity.

 Under assistance, altruistic (prosocial) behavior, according to N.A. Aminov, can be understood as any action aimed at the well-being of other people. This position is consonant with the humanistic interpretation of the motivation for learning, although formulated on a different basis, and expressed in other terms.

Motivation and Centering


The motivational-demanding sphere of the teacher’s activity can be interpreted in terms of its centering, according to A.B. Orlov. Centering is understood in humanistic psychology as “a specially constructed simple interaction between a teacher and students, based on empathy, an invaluable acceptance of another person and a congruence of experiences and behavior. 
Centering is treated simultaneously as a result of the personal growth of the teacher and students, the development of their communication, creativity, subjective (personal) growth as a whole ”[153, p. 142]. According to A.B. Orlov, the teacher’s personal centering is an “integral and system-forming” characteristic of the teacher’s activities. It is believed that it is precisely the nature of the teacher’s centering that determines the diversity of this activity: style, attitude, social perception, etc.

A.B. Orlov describes seven main centers, each of which can dominate both in pedagogical activity as a whole and in separate, specific pedagogical situations :


  •  selfish (centering on the interests of your "I");
  •  bureaucratic (centering on the interests of the administration, managers);
  •  conflict (centering on the interests of colleagues);
  •  authoritative (centering on interests, inquiries of parents of students);
  •  cognitive (centering on the requirements of training and education);
  •  altruistic (centering on the interests (needs) of students);
  •  humanistic (teacher's centering on the interests (manifestations) of his essence and the essence of other people (administrator, colleagues, parents, students)) .


In humanistic psychology, humanistic centering is most developed. It is as if opposed to the first six centers, reflecting the reality of traditional learning. A change in the orientation of these centers or the “decentration” of a teacher is one of the psychocorrectional tasks of modern education in general and school education in particular.

Pedagogical activity is characterized by objective content, an external structure, in which a special role is given to motivation, which is correlated with various centers of the teacher and the motive of dominance.

Self Test Questions


1. What is the difference between the subject of pedagogical activity and the subject of any other type of activity?

2. What is included in the structure of external and internal motives of pedagogical activity?

3. How can one explain the inclusion of the power motive in the structure of motivation for pedagogical activity?

4. Which of the seven selected AB Orlov teacher centration can have the most negative impact on pupils (students)?


Literature


Kuzmina N.V. Professionalism of the activities of the teacher and master of vocational training at vocational schools. M., 1989.

Markova A.K. The psychology of professionalism. M., 1996.

Markova A.K. Psychology of teacher work. M., 1993.

Mitina L.M. Psychology of teacher professional development. M., 1998.

Mitina L.M. Teacher as a person and a professional. M., 1994.

Orlov A.B. Psychology of the personality and essence of man: paradigm, projection, practice. M., 1995.

Rean A.A. Psychology of pedagogical activity. Izhevsk, 1994.


by SHUVO
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