GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES : The technological approach to education and training as a new direction that originated in the 60-70s. 20 century., Attracted practitioners with the idea of ​​complete controllability of the educational process.


 Pedagogical technology is understood as a systematic and consistent implementation in practice of a pre-designed teaching process. Pedagogical technologies allow you to create a flexible and flexible structure of the educational process, adjusted at any stage due to the presence of constant feedback. The possibility of phased reproduction of pedagogical technology ensures the achievement of the goals of education and training for all students.

The technological approach was developed primarily in the USA, England, Spain, Japan (journals on pedagogical technology issues have been published here since the beginning of the 70s), and then spread to other countries.

The widespread dissemination of the technological approach in the educational process was largely facilitated by programmed instruction. The latter involved the assimilation of teaching material in portions and mandatory follow-up control, which allows us to conclude that it is possible for the student to further advance in the study of the next portion of the teaching material. There was an idea to divide the learning process into separate links, which was then called the technological chain.

 An extensive method of programmed instruction, which suggested an individual way of studying educational material, depending on the results of detailed control, prompted educators to the idea of ​​phased reproduction of individual parts (links) of the educational process. Programmed instruction is not widespread in school practice,but his ideas served as the basis for the further development of a technological approach to training and education.

Technologization of the educational process is an objective phenomenon that will allow solving the problems of education and upbringing at a qualitatively new level. 

Technologization of the educational process occurs, naturally, with the development of pedagogical science. The more funds, active forms and methods of training and education develop, the less the effectiveness of the pedagogical process depends on the art and individual skill of the teacher.

 The role of the teacher is not diminished at all, the personality will always bring up the personality. The process of cognition and development for students due to the technological approach will become more advanced, information will become more qualitative, and the path to its development will become rational and less dependent on the skill of the teacher.

Teacher-theorists did not immediately accept the ideas of a technological approach in the educational process. Many were confused by the term “technology” itself, which supposedly excluded creativity in the teacher’s activities, leaving the teacher only the role of a manipulator.

 However, interest in pedagogical technologies increased, the introduction of a technological approach into practice revealed a tendency to the rapid accumulation of new technologies. In Kazan, under the guidance of M.I. Makhmutov, the technology of problem education was developed, in other regions programmed instruction was introduced; technological literacy of teachers grew along with the propaganda of the skill of innovative teachers.

So, in the 70s. The method of V.F.Shatalov gained popularity and distribution. The experience of the Ukrainian teacher of mathematics, physics and astronomy V.F.Shatalov, who created an effective educational technology, did not lend itself to analysis and evaluation from the point of view of traditional pedagogy and psychology, caused a lot of controversy and generated opposing opinions.

The introduction of upbringing and teaching technologies into practice stimulated the theoretical development of the technological approach problem in the educational process (V.P. Bespalko, A.A. Verbitsky, M.V. Klarin, M. Clark, M.I. Makhmutov, M.A. .Choshanov, F. Yanushevich and others). 

The main features of the technologicalization of the educational process were formulated: standardization, unification in the system of mass education and upbringing; taking the creative process (creating and evaluating technologies) to a higher level of organization; streamlining of the educational system (T.S.Nazarova).

Consider the concept of "technology" in general and in relation to the educational process. Technology - a term that means a body of knowledge about the methods and means of processing something (metals, materials).

The technological process always provides for a certain sequence of operations using the necessary tools and conditions. At the same time, the effectiveness of the created technologies and technological processes depends on a deep knowledge of the material features and the laws governing the functioning of the studied processes.

There is still no certainty in the understanding of the term “pedagogical technology”. In pedagogical literature, unfortunately, more than three hundred definitions of the concept have accumulated. The debate about the nature of educational technology is likely to continue for a long time. Let us present the most widespread and well-established point of view regarding the essence of the concept of “pedagogical technology” in several definitions.

Pedagogical technology means a systemic set and order of formation of all personal, instrumental and methodological tools used to achieve pedagogical goals (M.V. Klarin).
Pedagogical technology is a consistent, interdependent system of actions of a teacher associated with the use of a particular set of methods of education and training and implemented in the pedagogical process with the aim of solving various pedagogical problems (V.A.Slastenin, I.F. Isaev, A.I. Mishchenko, E.N. Shiyanov).

Pedagogical technology is an ordered system of procedures, the rigorous implementation of which will lead to the achievement of a certain, planned result. The pedagogical technology is characterized by two points: the guarantee of the final result and the design of the future educational process (V.A. Monakhov).


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